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Vol. 1. Chicago (Oct. 16, 1910) Ilm No. 12
ABDUL-BAHA IN EGYPT.
First of a series of special news items pertaining to the tour of Abdul-Baha.
Portion of a letter from Mr. Sydney Sprague to Mrs. Isabella D. Brittingham.
Mount Carmel, August 29, 1910.
Dear Sister in the Holy Cause:–I have a very big piece of news to tell you. Abdul-Baha has left this Holy Spot for the first time in forty-two years, and has gone to Egypt. Think of the vast significance and importance of this step! By it many prophecies of the sacred Scriptures are fulfilled. The Light and Life of Acca has departed and we feel as though we were now left in obscurity while Egypt is illumined, and that ancient country which has seen the prophets Joseph and Moses and even the infant Christ is now to see the Consummation of all the prophets. Will it appreciate and realize this Bounty? Everyone was astounded to hear of Abdul-Baha's departure, for no one knew until the very last minute that he had any idea of leaving. The afternoon of the day he left, he came to Mirza Assad Ullah's home to see us and sat with us awhile beside a new well that has just been finished and said that he had come to taste the water. We did not realize that it was a good-bye visit. Then he took a carriage and went up the hill to the Holy Tomb (of the Bab). That night, as usual, the believers gathered before the house of Abdul-Baha to receive that blessing, which every day is ours, of being in his presence, but we waited in vain, for one of the sons-in-law came and told us that Abdul-Baha had taken the Khedivial steamer for Port Said. We could hardly believe it was true, so great was this news. Think how happy we must be that after forty-two years in this cage, the Divine Bird has spread His wings and in perfect freedom flown away.
SPECIAL.–Word has been received from Port Said that Abdul-Baha has sailed from that port on a steamer for an unknown destination.
AROUND THE WORLD WITH MESSRS.
REMEY AND STRUVEN
Fifth of a Series of Articles under this Heading.
SOME QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
Written shortly after the interviews with Abdul-Baha, from notes taken at the time, by Charles Mason Remey, while in Haifa, Syria, May, 1910.
Question–Many of the American believers desire to worship daily in accordance with the Teachings. What prayers should they use daily? No instruction has yet been revealed for them regarding daily worship.
Answer–Later on I will give instructions.
Q.–Was BAHA'O'LLAH of the seed of Jesse?
A.–Yes. He was the ninth generation in succession from Jesse, but this was not the Jesse of the Bible.
Q.–What is the Command regarding the giving of tithes: Is it 19% of the increase of one's capital, or is it the one-nineteenth part of one's income?
A.–It should be the one nineteenth part of one's income. This tithe giving is a blessed privilege. Among mankind money is the greatest thing. This giving will confirm the people. With this money many great works will be done. In Hamadan in Persia, the Jewish believers raised much money in this way. At first I did not accept this money, but later on I directed that it should be used in their own town for the Bahai school. This giving was a great spiritual blessing to those believers. Everyone knows how the Jews love money.
Q.–Is the calendar as revealed by the Bab to be used in this Dispensation?
A.–Yes; but later on modifications will be made.
Q.–From what year does the era of the New Dispensation date–from the Declaration of the Bab or from that of BAHA'O'LLAH?
A.–From the Declaration of the Bab, 1260 A. H. or 1844 A. D.
Q.–Which day of the week will the Bahais eventually observe as a day of rest?
Q.–We have been taught that BAHAO'LLAH was the Seventh of a series of great World (Universal) Manifestations of this present cycle, Christ being the sixth, Melchesidec the fifth, while the first four
were before the compilation of our present world history, and of them we have no records; that their teachings were applicable to all mankind under all conditions; while upon the other hand the Manifestations, such as Zoroaster, Abraham, Moses, Mohammed and the Bab were sent each to a certain people, bringing teachings which were applicable to those certain conditions and people only, while the teachings of the World Manifestations were not limited in their application to peoples. Is this teaching correct?
A.–Yes, it is correct.
In a subsequent conversation, during which questions were being asked and answered, Abdul-Baha said:
That BAHAOLLAH was not a descendant from the Prophet Zoroaster.
That the Anniversary of the martyrdom of the Bab should be observed with solemnity by the friends.
That the Anniversary of the Departure of BAHA'O'LLAH should be observed in like manner, and that in the night time a meeting of prayer should be held.
That it would be well for the Western friends to interest themselves in commercial and industrial matters with the people of Persia, for Persia and the West both need connection one with the other.
That in serving together the believers should always avoid those matters upon which they cannot agree. The believers should serve together, the men and women working together in harmony. In meetings of consultation the majority should rule, but it is far preferable that there should be such unity that there be no minority–that all should be of one mind.
LETTERS FROM RANGOON AND BOMBAY.
A glimpse of the immediate result of the tour of Charles Mason Remey and Howard C. Struven, which Abdul-Baha has said will have eternal effect and “be seen during the ensuing centuries”:
Rangoon, Burma, Aug. 1, 1910.
Mr. Charles Mason Remey.
Dear Brother in the Great Service of El-Abha:–Our foremost thought is to heartily congratulate you on your happy return home after a brilliant conquest of so many kingdoms for the Great Kingdom of Baha'. That you have been the instrument to introduce this Divine Light in numberless dark regions is a pleasure in reality to us. We always feel the spirit left among us by your good self and dear brother Mr. Struven, who is rightly called by Abdul-Baha, in his Tablet, “Proclaimer of
Truth,” and we look with expectant eyes the recurrence of such events as often as possible, for they are calculated to leave, invariably, happy indelible impressions on the memory.
Another important event of which I would like to inform you, as the result of the wonderful work your happy spirit has been doing in this region ever since we were blessed with your delightful presence here, is the opening of a school in Kunjangoon village in the suburb of Rangoon for the education of the Bahai children of that quarter, by our good Brother Janab Syed Mustafa Sahib. He took great pains in getting a house erected in his presence and supplying books and various other materials as much as is consistent with our extremely poor fund. At present there are 71 children–30 boys and 41 girls. The number, however, is swelling very rapidly. We like to connect it, if possible, with the Persian-American Bahai Educational Society, founded in Persia by Mr. Sydney Sprague, and we earnestly hope that this Society will arise from its present limited sphere to the station of Universal Alma Mater for the Bahai World; and the Bahai educational seminaries in all regions may come under the direct supervision and parental control of this Society. Kindly pray that this cherished hope of ours may be accomplished. We would welcome with great pleasure any suggestion that you would be pleased to offer regarding the methods to be employed or the procedures to be adopted for the training of these Bahai children in this school. For the time being we have employed a Mulla, who has just accepted the Faith under somewhat mysterious circumstances, to teach Burmese and Arabic.
The history of this Mulla is very interesting. He was one of the staunchest Mullas prior to when the Message came to be delivered in the village of Kunjangoon, in which place, as you have seen, the Bahai movement is progressing wonderfully.
This Mulla, immediately after the advent of the Bahai spirit in the village, became dumb, and remained so for the last three years. But during the last week when our Brother Hazrat Syed Mustafa had been staying there and looking after the construction of the school building, this man in one night while he was by himself in his booth in the paddy field, saw a sudden glow of Light before himself and at once, most wonderfully, regained his lost power of speech–his first utterance being, “The Manifestation is a true one for it has enabled me to speak!” and for two or three days continuously was like one possessed, delivering talks in the praise of God. He embraced the Faith himself on the spot and induced his father, 70 years old, and his grandfather, aged about 90 years, to do the same. * * * Such is the history of this Mulla who is now a Bahai and whom our friend Syed Mustafa chose to teach the children there.
The servants of God in this part of the world feel great delight in extending their Bahai love and greetings to the friends of God living in the New World.
The Cause has received a very good encouragement by your presence in India, which we hope will be frequently repeated by other American teachers as well.
Our dear brother Syed Mustafa is just preparing to leave Burma for India, with the view of watering the seeds already sown by you and Mr. Struven, and nursing them to bring forth healthy fruits to the best of his ability.
With Bahai love and greetings, we remain devotedly yours,
THE BAHAI ASSEMBLY OF RANGOON,
Per A. S. Ismaeel
Bombay, August 19, 1910.
Miss Gertrude Buikema, Chicago, Ill.
My Dear Spiritual Sister:–You need not be amazed to read this letter. This unity is due to the All-Powerful,
and this correspondence due to the holy command that we should correspond in order to spread the holy breezes of love and unity. This acquaintance of name is due to our beloved friend and brother Prof. Charles Mason Remey of Washington, D. C.
I am a Hindoo believer in the Most Blessed Cause, by the favor of the Almighty, and you will be interested in knowing that we have a society in Bombay where there are many Zoroastrian and Mohammedan (Persian as well as Indian) believers. There are two Hindoo believers also. The president of the society is Aga Mirza Mahram, whose name you might have heard.
We had the happy occasion of having the cheerful faces of our two brothers, Prof. Charles Mason Remey and Mr. Howard C. Struven, in their tour around the world, and hope to have many more as it is most needy.
We have another society in Rangoon and Mandalay, while we have scattered believers all over India. The cause is not spread far and wide over India, but Abdul-Baha has said that Bombay will surely advance and that India will become a beautiful garden of believers. No doubt the Cause is progressing very rapidly all over the world and when God thinks it fit, India will have her share. It is no doubt a blessing to us that we have a very learned teacher like Mirza Mahram, whose very presence is enough to breathe spirit into our nostrils, but it is a misfortune of India that he does not know English and cannot bestir her because of his want of the power of expression.
My desire is to inform you of many or any important or praiseworthy events that take place here. A Mohammedan believer of Punjab, who had recently believed and gone to his native place, was opposed and troubled by his parents, friends and relatives. At last, having found him firm, they asked his sister to poison him. She did so. He was poisoned, but–thanks to the Almighty!–he was at once removed to the hospital and is cured. He is the first Indian who gave the risk of life.
Give my love and Bahai greetings to all the sisters and brothers. I send the love and greetings on behalf of the society, too.
I am your spiritual brother in El-ABHA,
NARAYAN RANGUATH VAKIL.
“Today all the beloved of God in those parts must endeavor that the Chicago Mashrak-el-Azkar be founded and be built in the utmost solidity and exquisiteness.”–ABDUL-BAHA ABBAS. Translated by Mirza A. K. Khan, Dec. 17, 1908.
The Executive Board of Bahai Temple Unity has just held a session in Chicago and finds from reports of treasurer and financial secretary that more prayer, more work, more money, must be put into the Mashrak-el-Azkar work than we have been doing. Abdul-Baha tells us it is the greatest and most important work in the Cause in America today, and yet this Board finds itself nearing the time for important payments with a deficit in the fund unless the friends throughout the country arise with a tremendous zeal and sacrifice and supply the needed money.
The treasurer reports money in bank October 1st, $3,108.14; interest due in December, $375.00, and a note of $5,150.00 to be met January 1, 1911. Thus, in two months at least $2,500 more will be needed.
Abdul-Baha said to some Chicago pilgrims: “The most important thing now in America is the building of the Mashrak-el-Azkar. You and your friends must endeavor in this matter. This building will be the cause of the confirmation of the believers. It has a great effect because it is the beginning of the foundation. After centuries it is not so important as it is now, but now it is very important. At first they build the Temple and worship in it and grow. In past times they could not build it so outwardly. This building will be the cause of Unity and prosperity of the Cause.”
When asked by a pilgrim last year if he would come to America, Abdul-Baha replied: “If they build the Mashrak-el-Azkar.” Again, when entirely alone with him, this pilgrim asked, “Will you come to America?” His face grew very serious and a great majesty came upon it. After a second or two he continued: “If the ground in America is well prepared so that much work can be done for the Cause.” The pilgrim then said to him, the responsibility rested upon the believers, and he replied: “The building of the Mashrak-el-Azkar will prepare that ground.”
The friends will read elsewhere in this issue a description of Abdul-Baha's sudden departure for Egypt. Let America take warning from this sudden departure and exert her utmost energy lest Abdul-Baha come upon us suddenly and “find us sleeping.”
As one soul in many bodies let the believers of America work and pray till the Mashrak-el-Azkar is accomplished. All contributions will be received and receipted for by the financial secretary, Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Ave., Chicago, Ill.
THE EXECUTIVE BOARD BAHAI TEMPLE UNITY.
Annws L. Parmerton.
Bernard M. Jacobsen.
Arthur S. Agnew.
William H. Hoar.
Joseph H. Hannen.
Roy C. Wilhelm.
MARRIAGE OF MR. SYDNEY SPRAGUE AND
Extract from a letter written by Mr. Sydney Sprague, from Haifa, Syria, Aug. 3, 1910, to Dr. Susan I. Moody, Teheran, Persia:
Now I know you will want to hear all about my marriage. The first part took place July 20th, which happened to be the feast day of Elijah, the Prophet, and Mt. Carmel was en fete. Abdul-Baha, himself, appointed the day so that Mr. Cobb could be here–he left the next day.
On that day all the pilgrims and the Bahais of Haifa gathered in the home of Mirza Assad Ullah, and Abdul-Baha was present. * * * A wonderful Tablet, which he had revealed especially for our marriage, was chanted, and after the special prayers revealed by BAHA'O'LLAH for such occasions were chanted, Abdul-Baha gave a long, beautiful talk, dwelling on the great signigicance of this union and calling down the blessing of God upon it. Then I had the great joy of pouring rose water, which I had brought from the garden of Kurat-ul-Ayn in Kazvin, on the hands of Abdul-Baha and all the guests and of serving them to shereeni (sweets) tea, etc. In another place Farahangiz was holding a meeting for women. These meetings took place a little before sunset. Four days later a Muiia came and married us according to the laws of Islam, Abdul-Baha also being present. Then that same night he called Farahangiz and me to him, and as we knelt before him, he took from his hand two rings and gave them to us, anointed our heads with oil and sent us forth hand in hand from his presence, uplifted with pure and holy joy. Oh! I am sure no wedding was ever more sacred, more pure, more beautiful. All of the holy household were present. All of them have shown us such love and kindness. The Greatest Holy Leaf has given me a ring she used to wear and she, herself, prepared Farahangiz for the wedding–a thing she has never done before, saying that Farahangiz was her own daughter. She and the holy mother and all sent us beautiful presents. Abdul-Baha presented us each with our wedding clothes. Is it possible for any one to be more blest on this earth than we? Ought not this union to be a very happy one and endure throughout all eternity as Abdul-Baha said?
There were several pilgrims here from Eschkabad, Baghdad and Kazvin, and I entertained them and the Bahais of Haifa at a dinner, Farahangiz entertaining the women. I forgot to say that on the day of our wedding Abdul-Baha sent me with his sons-in-law and grandchildren to pray at the Holy Tomb.
Now we are settled at the home of our parents and are very happy. Each day as we grow to know each other better our love deepens. I could never have found a more loving, devoted, beautiful wife either East or West. She is willing to go anywhere with me.
A daughter was born to Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Windust at Chicago, October 3d.
We are asked to announce that Mrs. F. S. Smith, 3 Church Place, North Adams, Mass., will gladly entertain any visiting believers.
Books, magazines, etc., for the Persian-American Educational Society should be sent as heretofore requested, either direct to address given in BAHAI NEWS No. 10, or to Mrs. C. S. Coles, Librarian, 310 The Burlington, Washington, D. C.
ALBERT R. WINDUST–EDITORS–GERTRUDE BUIKEMA
Address all communications to
BAHAI NEWS SERVICE, P. O. Box 283, Chicago, Ill., U.S.A.
Persian Editor.–MIRZA AHMAD SOHRAB, 1800 Belmont Road, Washington, D. C.
SUBSCRIPTION PRICE PER YEAR
Sent postpaid throughout North America, including Canal Zone and Panama; and following islands: Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, Philippines; also England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Germany, and Shanghai City (China): Unsealed $1.00; single copy 10c. Sealed $1.25; single copy 12c.
Sent postpaid throughout other parts of Occident and adjacent islands including Newfoundland: Unsealed $1.00; single copy 10c. Sealed $1.75; single copy 15c.
Sent postpaid throughout Orient, including Egypt and Russia: Sealed $1.75; single copy 15c. Note.–Through agents when established in Oriental centers: $1.00 per year.
Vol. 1. Chicago, (Oct. 16, 1910) Ilm No. 12
MONTH NAME FEAST DAYS
1st Baha' (Splendor) Mar. 21
2nd Jalal (Glory) Apr. 9
3rd Jamal (Beauty) Apr. 28
4th Azamat (Greatness) May 17
5th Nur (Light) June 5
6th Rahmat (Mercy) June 24
7th Kalamat (Words) July 13
8th Isma (Names) Aug. 1
9th Kamal (Perfection) Aug. 20
10th Izzat (Wealth) Sept. 8
11th Mashiyat (Will) Sept. 27
12th Ilm (Science) Oct. 16
13th Qudrat (Power) Nov. 4
14th Qaul (Saying) Nov. 23
15th Masa'il (Questions) Dec. 12
16th Sharaf (Honor) Dec. 31
17th Sultan (Sultan) Jan. 19
18th Malik (King) Feb. 7
Four intercalary days.
19th Ola (Sublimity) Mar. 2
(Month of fasting)
A letter from Mirza Heydar Ali Oskoey of Tabriz, Persia, tells of the joy of the friends over the inauguration of the Persian section of the BAHAI NEWS and all eagerly await the arrival of future issues. He says it is read again and again in their meetings, and that many of their youths can read and speak English fluently, therefore the section in English is also a great delight to them and they are kept busy translating,
as the older people wish to know what it contains.
Our Persian section this issue consists of (1) a Tablet revealed for the Hoboken (N. J.) Assembly in 1907; (2) an article on Universal Bahai Language in its religious, scientific and historical aspects–quoting from writings of BAHA'O'LLAH and Abdul-Baha–concluding with a description of the Sixth Esperanto World Congress held in Washington, D. C., recently; (3) news of Abdul-Baha's sojourn in Egypt, (4) and of Aga Seyad Assadollah Gomi going to Port Said from Acca at the wish of Abdul-Baha–to take the place of the late Seyad Taki Menshadi–through whom all letters for Abdul-Baha from the East and the West are forwarded.
The little band of faithful Bahais composing the Seattle, Wash., Assembly has by united and systematic effort accomplished great results. Because of the inspiration it will be to all, we quote the following extract from a letter received recently by Mrs. Corinne True from Mrs. Ida A. Finch, Secretary of the Seattle Assembly:
“Thank you, dear sister, for the kind words in regard to our Assembly. The fact that money comes to you regularly is because we have determined, through the help of the Spirit of ABHA, to be steadfast and self-sacrificing in the path so plainly marked out by Abdul-Baha. We give for the love of giving. The reason the amounts are not larger is because there have been calls from so many persons in dire need for the necessities of life, and we never turn an appeal aside. Since January 30, 1910, we have given money according to the following statement:
Mashrak-el-Azkar fund $260.00
Printing and books 139.00
Teheran school 36.00
Teacher for Teheran and calls outside the city 109.35
Philanthropic work in Seattle 123.87
We will, however, endeavor more and more for the Mashrak-el-Azkar, but you see from the amounts enumerated that it comes first in our giving.”
“The Oriental Rose–or, the Teachings of Abdul-Baha,” a book by Mary Hanford Ford, recently published by the Broadway Publishing Co., 835 Broadway, New York, is a creditable addition to our Bahai literature. The author has caught the spirit of the Subject and depicts it with an enthusiasm and
warmth that is contagious. It gives an excellent historic outline of the Bahai Movement, incorporating many incidents in the life of the Bab for which the author acknowledges indebtedness to M. Nicolas, secretary of the Persian Legation in Paris, who has written a biography of the Bab. It is a book every Bahai will enjoy reading and can hand to others to interest them in the Cause of BAHA'O'LLAH. The book is tastily bound in cloth; the price is $1.00, postpaid.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
The Fall campaign has commenced in earnest, and with the return of the regular attendants and a gratifying proportion of inquirers, the meetings are assuming normal proportions. The Unity Feast of September 27 was devoted to the discussion of plans and the development of enthusiasm in the work of the coming season, in the Washington Assembly. Addresses were delivered by Miss Grace E. Griswold, Mrs. Lua M. Getsinger, Dr. Ameen U. Fareed, Dr. E. H. Egbert, and the writer. Miss Katharine McNeal, who assumes charge of the Studio at 1219 Connecticut Avenue for the season, rendered charming musical selections, and with appropriate refreshments our Persian brothers, who had charge of the feast, concluded a most enjoyable evening.
Late advices from the East contain the important news that Abdul-Baha, in fulfillment of a promise given last year, is visiting the believers in Cairo. He spent some time in Port Said en route. The Glad-tidings seem almost incomprehensible. The first thought inspired is that America should proceed rapidly with the completion of finances for the Mashrak-el-Azkar, that we may consistently ask for the blessing of a visit to this country.
The Persian colony in Washington has been increased by the presence of three young men, brought over by the new Charge d'Affaires, Mirza Ali Kuli Khan. These sons of nobility are here for the purpose of obtaining an education along American lines, and their coming marks an epoch in history. This is another fruit of the Bahai movement.
Mr. Albert H. Hall spent several days in the city as a delegate to the American Prison Association Convention. His visit is timely as an inspiration in plans for the Mashrak-el-Azkar fund.
The Sunday morning Bible class resumes its sessions October 2.
Mr. Stanwood Cobb, of Massachusetts, is to be in Washington this year.
Mr. Charles Mason Remey returns shortly, and expects to remain with us for some time.
Miss Louise Shuman and Ardeshir Irani, our friend from India, left on September 1 for Kirksville, Mo., where they have taken up the study of Osteopathy. These devoted and regular attendants at our meetings will be missed.
Several of the friends have been seriously ill recently, but all are progressing favorably. The recovery of Mrs. R. H. Barnitz has been little short of miraculous. When, on September 18, a number of the friends gathered at her home to join in prayers for her welfare, few thought that she would recover from a serious operation performed on the 19th. But at the present writing her convalescence is most satisfactory. Mr. W. P. Ripley is recovering from his illness, and the condition of Mrs. Jere. Wilt shows improvement.
The death is reported, on September 9th, of John Klaus, the
grandfather of Messrs. Edward and Howard Struven, at his late residence, Catonsville, Md. His age was 86. He enjoyed very much, even with his feeble and failing sight, the reading of such Bahai literature in German as could be secured.
The Baltimore Assembly has changed the Sunday Bible class from afternoons to evenings, and plans an alternation of leaders.
The work in Sumerduck, Va., progresses, and the meeting on the fourth Sunday of each month has been adopted permanently. At the last meeting, the school house was too small to accommodate those who came, some driving several miles to hear the Glad-tidings. Any of the friends who undertake teaching in the smaller and isolated communities will find a gratifying number of thoughtful, earnest souls ready to listen.
JOS. H. HANNEN.
ASSEMBLIES IN THE OCCIDENT.
Secretaries are requested to see that their Assembly is correctly represented.
BALTIMORE, MD.–Regular weekly meetings Tuesday evenings at 629 West North Avenue, and Sunday evenings at 516 Broadway. Residence of Secretary, 629 West North Avenue.
BOSTON, MASS.–Sunday mornings, at 11 o'clock, in Beckton Hall, 200 Huntinzton Avenue.
BUFFALO, N. Y.–Meetings every Sunday and Thursday evening at 494 Elwood Avenue.
CHICAGO. ILLS.–Regular weekly meeting, Sunday, 11 a. m. at Corinthian Hall, 17th floor Masonic Temple, State and Randolph Streets. Address of Assembly, P. O. Box 283 George Lesch, Secretary.
DENVER, COLO.–G. Nathaniel Clark Secretary, 4141 Xavier Street.
KENOSHA, WIS.–Regular weekly meeting, Sunday, 10:30 a. m.; Sunday school, 9:30 a. m. at Gronquish Hall, 218 Park Street. Address of Assembly Fountain Nicholas, Secretary, 868 Park Street.
LOS ANGELES, CAL.–F. B. Beckett, Secretary, 429 Citizens National Bank Building.
NEW YORK, N.Y.–Regular weekly meeting, Sunday, 11 a. m., at Genealogical Hall, 226 West 58th Street. Paul T. G. Marshall, Secretary, 139 Shippen Street, Weehawken Heights, New Jersey.
SEATTLE, WASH.–Regular weekly meeting held at 2916 Beacon Avenue, South.
SUMERDUCK, VA.–Meetings on fourth Sundays; address care Mrs. R. H. Duckett.
WASHINGTON, D. C.–Regular meetings Friday evenings at 8:15; Sunday mornings at 11:15, at 1219 Connecticut Avenue. Mail address of Assembly, P. O, Box 192. Residence of Secretary, 1252 Eighth Street, N. W.
CONVERSATIONAL PERSIAN TAUGHT BY
The Bahai Correspondence School teaches Persian by simple lessons and phonographic records. Each pupil receives all necessary individual help and attention through a system of written lessons and criticisms. No Persian written characters are used; the English letters only are employed and pronunciations expressed in English characters. Many are taking advantage of this system, both in Europe and in America.
For particulars address MIRZA S. M. RAFFIE, S. B., 729 Livingston Hall, Columbia University, New York City, U. S. A.
(with cursive address in the middle: Address:- Payam Bare Bakhtar. 1800 Belmont Road. Washington D.C. U. S. America. )